PHP Interview Questions part 3

How can we extract string “” from a string “” using regular expression of PHP?
$text = “”;
preg_match(’|.*@([^?]*)|’, $text, $output);
echo $output[1];
Note that the second index of $output, $output[1], gives the match, not the first one, $output[0].

So if md5() generates the most secure hash, why would you ever use the less secure crc32() and sha1()?
Crypto usage in PHP is simple, but that doesn’t mean it’s free. First off, depending on the data that you’re encrypting, you might have reasons to store a 32-bit value in the database instead of the 160-bit value to save on space. Second, the more secure the crypto is, the longer is the computation time to deliver the hash value. A high volume site might be significantly slowed down, if frequent md5() generation is required.

How can we destroy the session, how can we unset the variable of a session?
session_unregister() – Unregister a global variable from the current session
session_unset() – Free all session variables

What are the different functions in sorting an array?
Sorting functions in PHP:


How can we know the count/number of elements of an array?
2 ways:
a) sizeof($array) – This function is an alias of count()
b) count($urarray) – This function returns the number of elements in an array.
Interestingly if you just pass a simple var instead of an array, count() will return 1.

How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?
At least 3 ways:
1. Put the variable into session in the first page, and get it back from session in the next page.
2. Put the variable into cookie in the first page, and get it back from the cookie in the next page.
3. Put the variable into a hidden form field, and get it back from the form in the next page.

What’s the difference between md5(), crc32() and sha1() crypto on PHP?
The major difference is the length of the hash generated. CRC32 is, evidently, 32 bits, while sha1() returns a 128 bit value, and md5() returns a 160 bit value. This is important when avoiding collisions.

How can we find the number of rows in a result set using PHP?
Here is how can you find the number of rows in a result set in PHP:
$result = mysql_query($any_valid_sql, $database_link);
$num_rows = mysql_num_rows($result);
echo “$num_rows rows found”;

What is the functionality of MD5 function in PHP?
string md5(string)
It calculates the MD5 hash of a string. The hash is a 32-character hexadecimal number.

How can we know that a session is started or not?
A session starts by session_start() function.
This session_start() is always declared in header portion. it always declares first. then we write session_register().

If we login more than one browser windows at the same time with same user and after that we close one window, then is the session is exist to other windows or not? And if yes then why? If no then why?
Session depends on browser. If browser is closed then session is lost. The session data will be deleted after session time out. If connection is lost and you recreate connection, then session will continue in the browser.

What is the difference between PHP4 and PHP5?
PHP4 cannot support oops concepts and Zend engine 1 is used.
PHP5 supports oops concepts and Zend engine 2 is used.
Error supporting is increased in PHP5.
XML and SQLLite will is increased in PHP5.

Can we use include(abc.PHP) two times in a PHP page makeit.PHP”?
Yes we can include that many times we want, but here are some things to make sure of:
(including abc.PHP, the file names are case-sensitive)
there shouldn’t be any duplicate function names, means there should not be functions or classes or variables with the same name in abc.PHP and makeit.php

What is meant by nl2br()?
nl2br() inserts a HTML tag <br> before all new line characters \n in a string.
echo nl2br(”god bless \n you”);
god bless<br>

What are the functions for IMAP?
imap_body – Read the message body
imap_check – Check current mailbox
imap_delete – Mark a message for deletion from current mailbox
imap_mail – Send an email message

What are encryption functions in PHP?

What is the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()?
htmlspecialchars() – Convert some special characters to HTML entities (Only the most widely used)
htmlentities() – Convert ALL special characters to HTML entities

What is the functionality of the function htmlentities?
htmlentities() – Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities
This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.

How can we get the properties (size, type, width, height) of an image using php image functions?
To know the image size use getimagesize() function
To know the image width use imagesx() function
To know the image height use imagesy() function

How can we increase the execution time of a php script?
By the use of void set_time_limit(int seconds)
Set the number of seconds a script is allowed to run. If this is reached, the script returns a fatal error. The default limit is 30 seconds or, if it exists, the max_execution_time value defined in the php.ini. If seconds is set to zero, no time limit is imposed.
When called, set_time_limit() restarts the timeout counter from zero. In other words, if the timeout is the default 30 seconds, and 25 seconds into script execution a call such as set_time_limit(20) is made, the script will run for a total of 45 seconds before timing out.

How to set cookies?
variable – name of the cookie variable
value – value of the cookie variable
time – expiry time
Example: setcookie(’Test’,$i,time()+3600);
Test – cookie variable name
$i – value of the variable ‘Test’
time()+3600 – denotes that the cookie will expire after an one hour

How to reset/destroy a cookie ?
Reset a cookie by specifying expire time in the past:
Example: setcookie(’Test’,$i,time()-3600); // already expired time
Reset a cookie by specifying its name only
Example: setcookie(’Test’);

What types of images that PHP supports ?
Using imagetypes() function to find out what types of images are supported in your PHP engine.

imagetypes() – Returns the image types supported.
This function returns a bit-field corresponding to the image formats supported by the version of GD linked into PHP. The following bits are returned, IMG_GIF | IMG_JPG | IMG_PNG | IMG_WBMP | IMG_XPM.

Check if a variable is an integer in JAVASCRIPT ?
var myValue =9.8;
if(parseInt(myValue)== myValue)
alert(’Not an integer’);

Tools used for drawing ER diagrams.
Case Studio
Smart Draw

How can I know that a variable is a number or not using a JavaScript?
Answer 1:
bool is_numeric( mixed var)
Returns TRUE if var is a number or a numeric string, FALSE otherwise.
Answer 2:
Definition and Usage
The isNaN() function is used to check if a value is not a number.
Parameter Description
number Required. The value to be tested

How can we submit from without a submit button?
Trigger the JavaScript code on any event ( like onSelect of drop down list box, onfocus, etc ) document.myform.submit(); This will submit the form.

How many ways can we get the value of current session id?
session_id() returns the session id for the current session.

How can we destroy the cookie?
Set the cookie with a past expiration time.

What are the current versions of Apache, PHP, and MySQL?
PHP: PHP 5.2.5
MySQL: MySQL 5.1
Apache: Apache 2.1

What are the reasons for selecting LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Php) instead of combination of other software programs, servers and operating systems?
All of those are open source resource. Security of Linux is very more than windows. Apache is a better server that IIS both in functionality and security. Mysql is world most popular open source database. Php is more faster that asp or any other scripting language.

What are the features and advantages of OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING?
One of the main advantages of OO programming is its ease of modification; objects can easily be modified and added to a system there by reducing maintenance costs. OO programming is also considered to be better at modeling the real world than is procedural programming. It allows for more complicated and flexible interactions. OO systems are also easier for non-technical personnel to understand and easier for them to participate in the maintenance and enhancement of a system because it appeals to natural human cognition patterns. For some systems, an OO approach can speed development time since many objects are standard across systems and can be reused. Components that manage dates, shipping, shopping carts, etc. can be purchased and easily modified for a specific system.

How can we get second of the current time using date function?
$second = date(”s”);

What is the use of friend function?
Friend functions
Sometimes a function is best shared among a number of different classes. Such functions can be declared either as member functions of one class or as global functions. In either case they can be set to be friends of other classes, by using a friend specifier in the class that is admitting them. Such functions can use all attributes of the class which names them as a friend, as if they were themselves members of that class. A friend declaration is essentially a prototype for a member function, but instead of requiring an implementation with the name of that class attached by the double colon syntax, a global function or member function of another class provides the match.

class mylinkage
mylinkage * prev;
mylinkage * next;
friend void set_prev(mylinkage* L, mylinkage* N);
void set_next(mylinkage* L);
mylinkage * succ();
mylinkage * pred();
void mylinkage::set_next(mylinkage* L) { next = L; }
void set_prev(mylinkage * L, mylinkage * N ) { N->prev = L; }
Friends in other classes
It is possible to specify a member function of another class as a friend as follows:
class C
friend int B::f1();
class B
int f1();
It is also possible to specify all the functions in another class as friends, by specifying the entire class as a friend.
class A
friend class B;
Friend functions allow binary operators to be defined which combine private data in a pair of objects. This is particularly powerful when using the operator overloading features of C++. We will return to it when we look at overloading.

How can we get second of the current time using date function?
$second = date(”s”);

What is the maximum size of a file that can be uploaded using PHP and how can we change this?
You can change maximum size of a file set upload_max_filesize variable in php.ini file

How can I make a script that can be bilingual (supports English, German)?
You can change char set variable in above line in the script to support bi language.

What are the difference between abstract class and interface?
Abstract class: abstract classes are the class where one or more methods are abstract but not necessarily all method has to be abstract. Abstract methods are the methods, which are declare in its class but not define. The definition of those methods must be in its extending class.
Interface: Interfaces are one type of class where all the methods are abstract. That means all the methods only declared but not defined. All the methods must be define by its implemented class.

What’s the difference between accessing a class method via -> and via :
:: is allowed to access methods that can perform static operations, i.e. those, which do not require object initialization.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of CASCADE STYLE SHEETS?
External Style Sheets
Can control styles for multiple documents at once Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts
An extra download is required to import style information for each document The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external style sheet is loaded Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of style definitions
Embedded Style Sheets
Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts No additional downloads necessary to receive style information
This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once
Inline Styles
Useful for small quantities of style definitions Can override other style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need to be listed in conjunction with other style methods
Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of SGML/HTML) Can not control styles for multiple documents at once Author can not create or control classes of elements to control multiple element types within the document Selector grouping methods can not be used to create complex element addressing scenarios

What type of inheritance that php supports?
In PHP an extended class is always dependent on a single base class, that is, multiple inheritance is not supported. Classes are extended using the keyword ‘extends’.

When you want to show some part of a text displayed on an HTML page in red font color? What different possibilities are there to do this? What are the advantages/disadvantages of these methods?
There are 2 ways to show some part of a text in red:
1. Using HTML tag <font color=”red”>
2. Using HTML tag <span style=”color: red”>

When viewing an HTML page in a Browser, the Browser often keeps this page in its cache. What can be possible advantages/disadvantages of page caching? How can you prevent caching of a certain page (please give several alternate solutions)?
When you use the metatag in the header section at the beginning of an HTML Web page, the Web page may still be cached in the Temporary Internet Files folder.
A page that Internet Explorer is browsing is not cached until half of the 64 KB buffer is filled. Usually, metatags are inserted in the header section of an HTML document, which appears at the beginning of the document. When the HTML code is parsed, it is read from top to bottom. When the metatag is read, Internet Explorer looks for the existence of the page in cache at that exact moment. If it is there, it is removed. To properly prevent the Web page from appearing in the cache, place another header section at the end of the HTML document.

What are the different ways to login to a remote server? Explain the means, advantages and disadvantages?
There is at least 3 ways to logon to a remote server:
Use ssh or telnet if you concern with security
You can also use rlogin to logon to a remote server.

Please give a regular expression (preferably Perl/PREG style), which can be used to identify the URL from within a HTML link tag.
Try this: /href=”([^”]*)”/i

How can I use the COM components in php?
The COM class provides a framework to integrate (D)COM components into your PHP scripts.
string COM::COM( string module_name [, string server_name [, int codepage]]) – COM class constructor.
module_name: name or class-id of the requested component.
server_name: name of the DCOM server from which the component should be fetched. If NULL, localhost is assumed. To allow DCOM com, allow_dcom has to be set to TRUE in php.ini.
codepage – specifies the codepage that is used to convert php-strings to unicode-strings and vice versa. Possible values are CP_ACP, CP_MACCP, CP_OEMCP, CP_SYMBOL, CP_THREAD_ACP, CP_UTF7 and CP_UTF8.
$word->Visible = 1; //open an empty document
$word->Documents->Add(); //do some weird stuff
$word->Selection->TypeText(”This is a test…”);
$word->Documents[1]->SaveAs(”Useless test.doc”); //closing word
$word->Quit(); //free the object
$word = null;

How many ways we can give the output to a browser?
HTML output
PHP, ASP, JSP, Servlet Function
Script Language output Function
Different Type of embedded Package to output to a browser

What is the default session time in php and how can I change it?
The default session time in php is until closing of browser


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