CSS [Cascading Style Sheets] Interview questions and answers


Explain in brief about the term CSS.

Answer
A stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. Cascading Style Sheets are a big breakthrough in Web design because they allow developers to control the style and layout of multiple Web pages all at once.
What are the various style sheets?

Answer
Inline, external, imported and embedded are the different types of style sheets.
What are style sheet properties?

Answer
CSS Background
CSS Text
CSS Font
CSS Border
CSS Outline
CSS Margin
CSS Padding
CSS List
CSS Table
List various font attributes used in style sheet.

Answer
font-style
font-variant
font-weight
font-size/line-height
font-family
caption
icon
menu
message-box
small-caption
status-bar
Explain inline, embedded and external style sheets.

Answer
Inline
If only a small piece of code has to be styled then inline style sheets can be used.

Embedded
Embedded style sheets are put between the <head> </head> tags.

External
If you want to apply a style to all the pages within your website by changing just one style sheet, then external style sheets can be used.

1. Explain in brief about the term CSS.
2. What are the various style sheets?
3. What are style sheet properties?
4. List various font attributes used in style sheet.
5. Explain inline, embedded and external style sheets.

What is CSS?
1. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is a simple styling language which allows attaching style to HTML elements. Every element type as well as every occurrence of a specific element within that type can be declared an unique style, e.g. margins, positioning, color or size.

2. CSS is a web standard that describes style for XML/HTML documents.

3. CSS is a language that adds style (colors, images, borders, margins?) to your site. It?s really that simple. CSS is not used to put any content on your site, it?s just there to take the content you have and make it pretty. First thing you do is link a CSS-file to your HTML document. Do this by adding this line:

<link rel=”stylesheet” href=”style.css”
type=”text/css”>

The line should be placed in between your <head> and </head> tags. If you have several pages you could add the exact same line to all of them and they will all use the same stylesheet, but more about that later. Let?s look inside the file ?style.css? we just linked to.

h1 {
font-size: 40px;
height: 200px;
}
.warning {
color: Red;
font-weight: bold;
}
#footer {
background-color: Gray;
}

4. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents. This is also where information meets the artistic abilities of a web-designer. CSS helps you spice up your web-page and make it look neat in wide variety of aspects.

What are Cascading Style Sheets?
A Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) is a list of statements (also known as rules) that can assign various rendering properties to HTML elements. Style rules can be specified for a single element occurrence, multiple elements, an entire document, or even multiple documents at once. It is possible to specify many different rules for an element in different locations using different methods. All these rules are collected and merged (known as a “cascading” of styles) when the document is rendered to form a single style rule for each element.

How do I center block-elements with CSS1?
There are two ways of centering block level elements:

1. By setting the properties margin-left and margin-right to auto and width to some explicit value:

BODY {width: 30em; background: cyan;}
P {width: 22em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto}

In this case, the left and right margins will each be four ems wide, since they equally split up the eight ems left over from (30em – 22em). Note that it was not necessary to set an explicit width for the BODY element; it was done here to keep the math clean.

Another example:

TABLE {margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 400px;}
In most legacy browsers, a table’s width is by default determined by its content. In CSS-conformant browsers, the complete width of any element (including tables) defaults to the full width of its parent element’s content area. As browser become more conformant, authors will need to be aware of the potential impact on their designs.

If background and color should always be set together, why do they exist as separate properties?
There are several reasons for this. First, style sheets become more legible — both for humans and machines. The background property is already the most complex property in CSS1 and combining it with color would make it even more complex. Second, color inherits, but background doesn’t and this would be a source of confusion.

What is class?
Class is a group of 1) instances of the same element to which an unique style can be attached or 2) instances of different elements to which the same style can be attached.

1) The rule P {color: red} will display red text in all paragraphs. By classifying the selector P different style can be attached to each class allowing the display of some paragraphs in one style and some other paragraphs in another style.
2) A class can also be specified without associating a specific element to it and then attached to any element which is to be styled in accordance with it’s declaration. All elements to which a specific class is attached will have the same style.

To classify an element add a period to the selector followed by an unique name. The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code, however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit. (Note: in HTML the value of the CLASS attribute can contain more characters). (Note: text between /* and */ are my comments).

CSS
P.name1 {color: red} /* one class of P selector */
P.name2 {color: blue} /* another class of P selector */
.name3 {color: green} /* can be attached to any element */

HTML
<P class=name1>This paragraph will be red</P>
<P class=name2>This paragraph will be blue</P>
<P class=name3>This paragraph will be green</P>
<LI class=name3>This list item will be green</LI>

It is a good practice to name classes according to their function than their appearance; e.g. P.fotnote and not P.green. In CSS1 only one class can be attached to a selector. CSS2 allows attaching more classes, e.g.:
P.name1.name2.name3 {declaration} <P class=”name1 name2 name2″>This paragraph has three classes attached</P>

What is grouping ?
Grouping is gathering (1) into a comma separated list two or more selectors that share the same style or (2) into a semicolon separated list two or more declarations that are attached to the same selector (2).

1. The selectors LI, P with class name .first and class .footnote share the same style, e.g.:
LI {font-style: italic}
P.first {font-style: italic}
.footnote {font-style: italic}

To reduce the size of style sheets and also save some typing time they can all be grouped in one list.
LI, P.first, .footnote {font-style: italic}

2. The declarations {font-style: italic} and {color: red} can be attached to one selector, e.g.:
H2 {font-style: italic}
H2 {color: red}
and can also be grouped into one list:
H2 {font-style: italic; color: red}

What is external Style Sheet? How to link?
External Style Sheet is a template/document/file containing style information which can be linked with any number of HTML documents. This is a very convenient way of formatting the entire site as well as restyling it by editing just one file. The file is linked with HTML documents via the LINK element inside the HEAD element. Files containing style information must have extension .css, e.g. style.css. <HEAD> <LINK REL=STYLESHEET HREF=”style.css” TYPE=”text/css”> </HEAD>

Is CSS case sensitive?
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is not case sensitive. However, font families, URLs to images, and other direct references with the style sheet may be.
The trick is that if you write a document using an XML declaration and an XHTML doctype, then the CSS class names will be case sensitive for some browsers.

It is a good idea to avoid naming classes where the only difference is the case, for example:

div.myclass { …}
div.myClass { … }

If the DOCTYPE or XML declaration is ever removed from your pages, even by mistake, the last instance of the style will be used, regardless of case.

Three selectors: h1, .warning and #footer, what they do ?
An element points at a HTML-tag somewhere on your page. In the example above we want to style the <h1>-tag. Note that using an element like that affects all tags with that name, so using p { margin-left: 100px; } gives all <p>-tags a left-margin.
Using a class is just as simple. When writing .your_class you style all tags with a class with the name ?your_class?. In the example above we have .warning which will style e.g. <div class=”warning”> and <em class=”warning”>, that is, any element with the class warning. Classes are used when you want to style just a few of your tags in a way, perhaps you want some of your links red? Add a class to all those links.
You need one more building block: the id. This time you style an element with the attribute ?id? set to the id you have chosen. Ids work exactly like classes except for one thing; you can only have one id with a certain name in each of your HTML documents. In the example above we style <div id=”footer”>. If you look at the example it does make sense: a HTML document may contain several warnings but only one footer. Ids should be used when you want to style just one specific tag.
Using those three building blocks will take you far but when you get to more advanced layouts you might want to combine the building blocks into more advanced selectors. Just to give you two examples of what you can do: em.warning to style only those <em>-tags with the class .warning set. You can also use #footer a to style only the links that are nested inside the tag with id ?footer.
Each of the selectors has a set of declarations tied to them. Each declaration has a property, describing what we want to change and a value, what we should change it to. An example: a { color: Blue; font-size: 3em; }. You have the selector a there, so all links in your document will be styled. We have two declarations: color: Blue and font-size: 3em;. Lastly each declaration consists of two parts: the property color and the value Blue.
there is a LOT of things you can style and play with. Additionally (close to) all tags are equal in CSS, so you can set e.g. borders and colors of any element just like you could with a table if you used only HTML.

What are Style Sheets?
Style Sheets are templates, very similar to templates in desktop publishing applications, containing a collection of rules declared to various selectors (elements).

What is CSS rule ‘ruleset’?
There are two types of CSS rules: ruleset and at-rule. Ruleset identifies selector or selectors and declares style which is to be attached to that selector or selectors. For example P {text-indent: 10pt} is a CSS rule. CSS rulesets consist of two parts: selector, e.g. P and declaration, e.g. {text-indent: 10pt}.

P {text-indent: 10pt} – CSS rule (ruleset)
{text-indent: 10pt} – CSS declaration
text-indent – CSS property
10pt – CSS value

what is ‘Fixed’ Background?
There is the possibility to use the HTML tag bgproperties=”fixed”, but that is IE proprietary, and dependent upon the ‘background’ attribute (deprecated in HTML4).

With CSS, you can declare the background like:

BODY {
font-family : “Trebuchet MS”, Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
background-image: url(images/yourimage.gif);
background-repeat: no-repeat; /*no-tiling background*/
background-position: center;
background-attachment: fixed;
background-color: #hexcolor;
color : #hexcolor;
margin: 10px;
}

that shows a background-image in the center of the <BODY> element, non-scrolling and non-repeating – in IE or NN6. NN 4.xx gets the non-repeat-part right, but stuffs the picture in the upper left corner and scrolls …

What is embedded style? How to link?
Embedded style is the style attached to one specific document. The style information is specified as a content of the STYLE element inside the HEAD element and will apply to the entire document.

<HEAD>
<STYLE TYPE=”text/css”>
<!–
P {text-indent: 10pt}
–>
</STYLE>
</HEAD>

Note: The styling rules are written as a HTML comment, that is, between <!– and –> to hide the content in browsers without CSS support which would otherwise be displayed.

What is ID selector?
ID selector is an individually identified (named) selector to which a specific style is declared. Using the ID attribute the declared style can then be associated with one and only one HTML element per document as to differentiate it from all other elements. ID selectors are created by a character # followed by the selector’s name. The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code, however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit.

#abc123 {color: red; background: black}

<P ID=abc123>This and only this element can be identified as abc123 </P>

What is contextual selector?
Contextual selector is a selector that addresses specific occurrence of an element. It is a string of individual selectors separated by white space, a search pattern, where only the last element in the pattern is addressed providing it matches the specified context.

TD P CODE {color: red}

The element CODE will be displayed in red but only if it occurs in the context of the element P which must occur in the context of the element TD.

TD P CODE, H1 EM {color: red}

The element CODE will be displayed in red as described above AND the element EM will also be red but only if it occurs in the context of H1

P .footnote {color: red}

Any element with CLASS footnote will be red but only if it occurs in the context of P

P .footnote [lang]{color: red}

Any element with attribute LANG will be red but only if it is classed as “footnote” and occurs in the context of P

How do I have a background image that isn’t tiled?
Specify the background-repeat property as no-repeat. You can also use the background property as a shortcut for specifying multiple background-* properties at once. Here’s an example:

BODY {background: #FFF url(watermark.jpg) no-repeat;}

What does \ABCD (and \ABCDE) mean?
CSS allows Unicode characters to be entered by number. For example, if a CLASS value in some Russian document contains Cyrillic letters EL PE (Unicode numbers 041B and 041F) and you want to write a style rule for that class, you can put that letter into the style sheet by writing:

.41B41F {font-style: italic;}
This works on all keyboards, so you don’t need a Cyrillic keyboard to write CLASS names in Russian or another language that uses that script.

The digits and letters after the backslash (\) are a hexadecimal number. Hexadecimal numbers are made from ordinary digits and the letters A to F (or a to f). Unicode numbers consist of four such digits.

If the number starts with a 0, you may omit it. The above could also be written as:

.\41B\41F {font-style: italic;}
But be careful if the next letter after the three digits is also a digit or a letter a to f! This is OK: .\41B-\41F, since the dash (-) cannot be mistaken for a hexadecimal digit, but .\41B9\41F is only two letters, not three.

Four digits is the maximum, however, so if you write:
.41B941F {font-style: italic;}

Why do style sheets exist?
SGML (of which HTML is a derivative) was meant to be a device-independent method for conveying a document’s structural and semantic content (its meaning.) It was never meant to convey physical formatting information. HTML has crossed this line and now contains many elements and attributes which specify visual style and formatting information. One of the main reasons for style sheets is to stop the creation of new HTML physical formatting constructs and once again separate style information from document content.

What are the advantages/disadvantages of the various style methods?
External Style Sheets
Advantages

* Can control styles for multiple documents at once
* Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents
* Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts

Disadvantages

* An extra download is required to import style information for each document
* The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external style sheet is loaded
* Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of style definitions

Embedded Style Sheets
Advantages

* Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document
* Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts
* No additional downloads necessary to receive style information

Disadvantages

* This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once

Inline Styles
Advantages

* Useful for small quantities of style definitions
* Can override other style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need to be listed in conjunction with other style methods

Disadvantages

* Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of SGML/HTML)
* Can not control styles for multiple documents at once
* Author can not create or control classes of elements to control multiple element types within the document
* Selector grouping methods can not be used to create complex element addressing scenarios

What is inline style? How to link?
Inline style is the style attached to one specific element. The style is specified directly in the start tag as a value of the STYLE attribute and will apply exclusively to this specific element occurrence.

<P STYLE=”text-indent: 10pt”>Indented paragraph</P>

What is imported Style Sheet? How to link?
Imported Style Sheet is a sheet that can be imported to (combined with) another sheet. This allows creating one main sheet containing declarations that apply to the whole site and partial sheets containing declarations that apply to specific elements (or documents) that may require additional styling. By importing partial sheets to the main sheet a number of sources can be combined into one.
To import a style sheet or style sheets include the @import notation or notations in the STYLE element. The @import notations must come before any other declaration. If more than one sheet is imported they will cascade in order they are imported – the last imported sheet will override the next last; the next last will override the second last, and so on. If the imported style is in conflict with the rules declared in the main sheet then it will be overridden.

<LINK REL=STYLESHEET HREF=”main.css” TYPE=”text/css”>
<STYLE TYPE=”text=css”>
<!–
@import url(http://www.and.so.on.partial1.css);
@import url(http://www.and.so.on.partial2.css);
…. other statements
–>
</STYLE>

What is a Style Sheet?
Style sheets are the way that standards-compliant Web designers define the layout, look-and-feel, and design of their pages. They are called Cascading Style Sheets or CSS. With style sheets, a designer can define many aspects of a Web page:

* fonts
* colors
* layout
* positioning
* imagery
* accessibility

Style sheets give you a lot of power to define how your pages will look. And another great thing about them is that style sheets make it really easy to update your pages when you want to make a new design. Simply load in a new style sheet onto your pages and you’re done.

What is alternate Style Sheet? How to link?
Alternate Style Sheet is a sheet defining an alternate style to be used in place of style(s) declared as persistent and/or preferred .
Persistent style is a default style that applies when style sheets are enabled but can disabled in favor of an alternate style, e.g.:

<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF=”style.css” TYPE=”text/css”>

Preferred style is a default style that applies automatically and is declared by setting the TITLE attribute to the LINK element. There can only be one preferred style, e.g.:

<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF=”style2.css” TYPE=”text/css” TITLE=”appropriate style description”>

Alternate style gives an user the choice of selecting an alternative style – a very convenient way of specifying a media dependent style. Note: Each group of alternate styles must have unique TITLE, e.g.:

<LINK REL=”Alternate Stylesheet” HREF=”style3.css” TYPE=”text/css” TITLE=”appropriate style description” MEDIA=screen>
<LINK REL=”Alternate Stylesheet” HREF=”style4.css” TYPE=”text/css” TITLE=”appropriate style description” MEDIA=print>

Alternate style sheet are not yet supported.

How can you set a minimum width for IE?

To set a minimum width, the CSS property is ‘min-width’. This can be very useful and works well in good browsers. IE doesn’t understand ‘min-width’. However, it has a proprietary property called ‘expression’ which allows us to feed it javascript via a stylesheet. Below is how to set a (780px) minimum width for IE…

<!–[if gte IE 5]> <style type=”text/css”>
body {
width:expression(documentElement.clientWidth < 780 ? (documentElement.clientWidth == 0 ? (body.clientWidth < 780 ? “780px” : “auto”) : “780px”) : “auto” );
}
</style>
<![endif]–>

As the property is non-standard, it won’t validate with the W3C validator, so if we put it in the head like this (above) – in an IE conditional comment – the validator will ignore it and the page will get a clean bill of health.

Which browsers support CSS?
It depends on your definition of “support.” If you are interested in those browsers which makes some attempt at supporting CSS, no matter how partial or bug-ridden, then the list is:

* Internet Explorer 3.0 and above
* Navigator 4.0 and above
* Opera 3.6 and above
* Konqueror
* Arena
* Emacs-w3
* Amaya
* Lexicon
* XPublish by Media Design in?Progress

If instead you’re interested in those browsers which are known to do a credible job of bug-free and mostly complete support for CSS1, then the list narrows somewhat dramatically:

* Internet Explorer 5.0 for Macintosh and above
* Internet Explorer 5.5 for Windows and above
* Netscape Navigator 6.0 and above
* Opera 4.0 and above

While none of these browser can be claimed to have a perfect implementation of CSS1, they are all quite good and can be relied upon to operate in a consistent fashion for most of CSS1.

How do I place text over an image?
To place text or image over an image you use the position property. The below exemple is supported by IE 4.0. All you have to do is adapt the units to your need.

<div style=”position: relative; width: 200px; height: 100px”>
<div style=”position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 200px”>
<image>
</div>
<div style=”position: absolute; top: 20%; left: 20%; width: 200px”>
Text that nicely wraps
</div>
</div>

what CSS is, why not start coding?
CSS is sort of like scripting language made for the web. In contrary with HTML, DHTML, JavaScript, VBScript and many others. CSS is strictly for formatting your web-page and now many new browser support it. (NOTE: Older browser do not support CSS, so please check your browser version and make sure whether it supports it or not. You may have to update your current Browser.)

The way the code goes into your Web-page is through a variety of ways. The way CSS works is that is the code is set between the<head></head> tags. You can put the CSS code after </title> which is what most people do. Now, here are the following ways of making your webpage with CSS enabled features:

1.) Writing your CSS code within your HTML source code. This is how it would look like:

<html><head><title>My First CSS!</title>
<!– Now begin the CSS coding! –>
<STYLE TYPE = “text/css”>
<!–
body {
background-color: #eeeee;
}
p {
text-align: left;
color: black;
font: Verdana;
font-size: 80%;
}
a {
text-decoration: none;
color: black;
font-weight: bold;
}
a:hover {
text-decoration: underline;
color: red;
font-weight: bold;
}
–>
</STYLE>
<!– End CSS code –>
</head><body></body></html>

2.) Linking to your CSS file. This tells the webpage to find the .css file and use it as the CSS code. Here is the code that would allow you to do:

<html><head><title>CSS</title>
<link href=”style.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />
</head><body /></html>

As you can see from the code above, the <link> tag is pretty helpful. What it does is that it links to the style.css file which has all the css code. Just like embedding an image throught he <img> tag.

Now to explain a bit from the first example. CSS code isn’t very hard to understand.Take for example the body { ..} part. What it does is that it formats how the <body> tag in HTML would work. That is a very simple way of formatting the body tag with the CSS. To help you understand better, here is a simple syntax for CSS:

selector { property1: value1; property2: value2;}

The “selector” sort of relates to the html tags used for outputting etc…

We all know that <a> is a tag used for links. You will see in the example about a:hover and a itself. <br>What a does it just sets the characteristics of the format. You can set how you want a link to appear using the font size, weight etc..

Then comes the “a:hover”. What does is also pretty self explanatory. It acts on when a person moves the mouse cursor over the links.

ADVANCED CSS FEATURES:

CSS can be even used to change the appearance of the scroll bar at your right side. Unfortunately, that only works with IE. You have to be using IE in order for this to work. Here is how to change some appearances of your scroll bar:

The CSS statements for doing this are:
1) scrollbar-3dlight-color
2)scrollbar-arrow-color
3) scrollbar-base-color
4) scrollbar-dark shadow-color
5) scrollbar-face-color
6) scrollbar-highlight-color
7) scrollbar-shadow-color
8) scrollbar-track-color

<style type=”text/css”>
<!–
BODY {
scrollbar-arrow-color: green;
scrollbar-face-color: #FFFFFF;
scrollbar-track-color: rgb(12,35,244);
}
// –>
</style>

How to customize your text boxes.
Here is the code on how to do it:

<style type=”text/css”>
<!–
BODY {
scrollbar-arrow-color: green;
scrollbar-face-color: #FFFFFF;
scrollbar-track-color: rgb(12,35,244);
}
TEXTAREA {
scrollbar-arrow-color: green;
scrollbar-face-color: #FFFFFF;
scrollbar-track-color: rgb(12,35,244);
}
// –>
</style>

That above code, has some similarities. The textbox area is treated with the same function statements as for the scrollbar. The scrollbar statements goes in the BODY selector.

Why does my content shift to the left on some pages (in FF)?
That’ll be the pages with more content? The ones that have a vertical scrollbar? If you look in IE there’s probably a white space on the right where there would be a scrollbar if there were enough content to require one. In Firefox, the scrollbar appears when it’s needed and the viewport becomes about 20px smaller, so the content seems to shift to the left when you move from a page with little content to one with lots of content. It’s not a bug or something that needs to be fixed, but it does confuse and irritate some developers.

If, for some reason, you’d like Firefox to always have scrollbars – whether they’re needed or not – you can do this :

CSS html {
height:100.1%;
}

How do I combine multiple sheets into one?
To combine multiple/partial style sheets into one set the TITLE attribute taking one and the same value to the LINK element. The combined style will apply as a preferred style, e.g.:

<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF=”default.css” TITLE=”combined”>
<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF=”fonts.css” TITLE=”combined”>
<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF=”tables.css” TITLE=”combined”>

What is attribute selector?
Attribute selector is a selector defined by 1) the attribute set to element(s), 2) the attribute and value(s), 3) the attribute and value parts:

1a) A[title] {text-decoration: underline}
All A elements containing the TITLE attribute will be underlined

1b) A[class=name] {text-decoration: underline}
The A elements classed as ‘name’ will be underlined

2) A[title=”attribute element”] {text-decoration: underline}
The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value that is an exact match of the specified value, which in this example is ‘attribute element’, will be underlined

3) A[title~=”attribute”] {text-decoration: underline}
The A elements containing the TITLE attribute with a value containing the specified word, which in this example is ‘attribute’, will be underlined

What is parent-child selector?
Parent-child selector is a selector representing the direct descendent of a parent element. Parent-child selectors are created by listing two or more tilde (~) separated selectors.

BODY ~ P {background: red; color: white}
The P element will be declared the specified style only if it directly descends from the BODY element:
<BODY> <P>Red and white paragraph </P> </BODY>

BODY ~ P ~ EM {background: red; color: white}
The EM element will be declared the specified style only if it directly descends from the P element which in its turn directly descends from the BODY element:

< <P> <EM>Red and white EM </EM> </P> </BODY>

How can I specify background images?
With CSS, you can suggest a background image (and a background color, for those not using your image) with the background property. Here is an example:

body {
background: white url(example.gif) ;
color: black ;
}
If you specify a background image, you should also specify text, link, and background colors since the reader’s default colors may not provide adequate contrast against your background image. The background color may be used by those not using your background image. Authors should not rely on the specified background image since browsers allow their users to disable image loading or to override document-specified backgrounds.

How do I have a fixed (non-scrolling) background image?
With CSS, you can use the background-attachment property. The background attachment can be included in the shorthand background property, as in this example:

body {
background: white url(example.gif) fixed ;
color: black ;
}

Note that this CSS is supported by Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Firefox Opera, Safari, and other browsers. In contrast, Microsoft’s proprietary BGPROPERTIES attribute is supported only by Internet Explorer.

What are inline, block, parent, children, replaced and floating elements?
Inline
elements which do not have line breaks. Can occur in block elements or other inline elements, cannot contain block elements.
Inline elements in HTML 3.2; EM, STRONG, DFN, CODE, SAMP, KBD, VAR, CITE, TT, I, B, U, STRIKE, BIG, SMALL, SUB, SUP, A, IMG, APPLET, FONT, BASEFONT, BR, SCRIPT, MAP, INPUT, SELECT, TEXTAREA.

Inline elements in HTML 4.0; EM, STRONG, DFN, CODE, SAMP, KBD, VAR, CITE, ABBR, ACRONYM, TT, I, B, BIG, SMALL, SUB, SUP, A, IMG, OBJECT, BR, SCRIPT, MAP, Q, SPAN, BDO, INPUT, SELECT, TEXTAREA, LABEL, BUTTON, (INS, DEL).

Inline elements in HTML 4.0 Transitional; EM, STRONG, DFN, CODE, SAMP, KBD, VAR, CITE, ABBR, ACRONYM, TT, I, B, U, S, STRIKE, BIG, SMALL, SUB, SUP, A, IMG, APPLET, OBJECT, FONT, BASEFONT, BR, SCRIPT, MAP, Q, SPAN, BDO, IFRAME, INPUT, SELECT, TEXTAREA, LABEL, BUTTON, (INS, DEL).

Block
elements which do have line breaks. May occur in other block elements, cannot occur in inline elements, may contain both block and inline elements.

Block elements in HTML 3.2; H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, ADDRESS, P, DL, DT, DD, UL, OL, DIR, MENU, LI, DIV, CENTER, BLOCKQUOTE, PRE, HR, ISINDEX, TABLE, FORM.

Block elements in HTML 4.0; P, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, UL, OL, PRE, DL, DIV, NOSCRIPT, BLOCKQUOTE, FORM, HR, TABLE, FIELDSET, ADDRESS, (INS, DEL).

Block elements in HTML 4.0 Transitional; P, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, UL, OL, DIR, MENU, PRE, DL, DIV, CENTER, NOSCRIPT, NOFRAMES, BLOCKQUOTE, FORM, ISINDEX, HR, TABLE, FIELDSET, ADDRESS, (INS, DEL).

Parents and children
elements which either contain (parents) or are in the content of (children) other elements, e.g. <P>text<STRONG>text</STRONG>text</P>. P is a parent of STRONG. STRONG is a child of P. If not specified otherwise, children will inherit parent’s properties.
Replaced
elements which content is replaced. For example content of the IMG element is replaced with an image, content of the INPUT element is replace with a field.
Floating
elements which follow the flow of a parent – inline elements.

Advertisements

4 Responses to “CSS [Cascading Style Sheets] Interview questions and answers”

  1. Posts about Web Standards as of December 6, 2008 | XHTML and CSS Says:

    […] your perspective for the better. Suppose, you have multiple web designs ready for coding, project CSS [Cascading Style Sheets] Interview questions and answers – sharag.wordpress.com 11/21/2008 November 21, 2008 — sharag Explain in brief about the term CSS […]

  2. comma practice Says:

    Thank you for putting together the article, Ian. Very thorough, not that I expect it to convince any

  3. anisha Says:

    nicely written, it was very helpful to me.
    thank u for this.

  4. rahber Says:

    nicely written, it was very helpful to me.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: